Books and Monographs

Publications
Listed below are the titles and abstracts of books, articles, and working papers produced by the TTCSP. Many are available for immediate delivery in .pdf format by request. Published books and papers are noted and may be available for download through the publisher's website by clicking the links below. Note that some journals require a subscription in order to download papers. For the remaining papers, please contact the TTCSP.

Forthcoming Publications:

Trends and Transition in Security Expertise from Deterrence to Climate Change and Back Again (Routledge Spring/Summer 2017)
The scope of Security and International Affairs (SIA) research has expanded tremendously since the end of the Cold War to include topics beyond the realm of war studies or military statecraft. A field once devoted solely to the study of conventional military and nuclear security issues has diversified to include foci often considered nontraditional, including peace and conflict, political, economic, environmental, and human security. 
In this exciting new volume, McGann has undertaken a quantitative and qualitative study of SIA think tanks, looking at global and regional trends in their research. He argues that the end of the Cold War marked a fundamental shift within the field of defense and security studies among think tanks and academics. Tracking the evolution of security as understood by researchers and policymakers is vital as the world follows the path of the “Four Mores”: more issues, more actors, more competition, and more conflict. As we move forward into a world of rapid change and ubiquitous uncertainty, think tanks will only become more prominent and influential. This will be an important resource for students and scholars of security studies, global governance, and think tanks.
The volume concludes with an assessment of the future of Security and International Affairs studies and raises the possibility of a return to a traditional security focus driven by recent events in Europe and the Middle East. This will be an important resource for students and scholars of security studies, global governance, and think tanks.

Think Tanks, Foreign Policy and the Emerging Powers (Palgrave Macmillan, 2017)
This book aims to understand the changing role of think tanks in a sample of states with growing relevance in international affairs. The contributing authors present twelve case studies that explore how security and international affairs think tanks in emerging powers collaborate with their policymakers to meet current and anticipate future foreign policy and security challenges. These case studies include examples from Argentina, Brazil, China, India, Nigeria, Qatar, Singapore, South Africa, South Korea, Turkey, and Vietnam. The authors identify and explicate the unique foreign policy challenges that these emerging powers face, as well as the strategies and programs that have been developed to effectively respond to these policy issues.

Think Tanks and the Emerging Power Policy Networks (Palgrave Macmillan, 2017)
This is a companion publication to the Think Tanks, Foreign Policy and the Emerging Powers book length manuscript. The Foreign Policy Challenges manuscript focuses on 4 emerging power countries: Brazil, China, India and Turkey and explores the foreign policy challenges they face and how think tanks are helping them meet those challenges. 
The Emerging Powers Policy Networks manuscript explores how a group of emerging power countries have created global policy networks of emerging power countries to support the interest and the policy agenda of the emerging powers in global forums like the G20. 

Previous Publications:

The Fifth Estate: Think Tanks, Public Policy, and Governments (Brookings Institution Press, 2016) 
What role do think tanks play in shaping public policy and public discourse in the United States? In The Fifth Estate: Think Tanks, Public Policy, and Governance, James G. McGann illustrates how policymakers have come to value the independent analysis and advice provided by think tanks and why it has become one of the defining characteristics of the American political system. Drawing on case studies in both foreign and domestic policy, McGann clarifies the correlation between think tank research and the policies enacted by the past three presidential administrations. He also describes a phenomenon known as “the revolving door,” where think tanks provide former government officials an opportunity to share insights from public service, remain involved in policy debates, and continue to provide advice and commentary.
Based on the history and the level of involvement seen today, the influence of think tanks is unlikely to diminish in the coming years.

The 2016 Global Go To Think Tank Index Report (University of Pennsylvania, 2017)
The TTCSP works with leading scholars and practitioners from think tanks and universities in a variety of collaborative efforts and programs, and produces the annual Global Go To Think Tank Index that ranks the world’s leading think tanks in a variety of categories. This is achieved with the help of a panel of over 1,900 peer institutions and experts from the print and electronic media, academia, public and private donor institutions, and governments around the world. We have strong relationships with leading think tanks around the world, and our annual Think Tank Index is used by academics, journalists, donors, and the public to locate and connect with the leading centers of public policy research around the world. Our goal is to increase the profile and performance of think tanks and raise the public awareness of the important role think tanks play in governments and civil societies around the globe.
Since its inception in 1989, the TTCSP has focused on collecting data and conducting research on think tank trends and the role think tanks play as civil society actors in the policymaking process. In 2007, the TTCSP developed and launched the global index of think tanks, which is designed to identify and recognize centers of excellence in all the major areas of public policy research and in every region of the world. To date, TTCSP has provided technical assistance and capacity building programs in 81 countries. We are now working to create regional and global networks of think tanks in an effort to facilitate collaboration and the production of a modest, yet achievable, set of global public goods. Our goal is to create lasting institutional and state-level partnerships by engaging and mobilizing think tanks that have demonstrated their ability to produce high quality policy research and shape popular and elite opinion and actions for public good.

Think Tanks, Politics and the Policy-Making Process: Catalysts for Ideas and Action chapter in edited volume, The Handbook on Public Policy Formulation (Edwin Elgar, 2017)
This Handbook represents a pioneering effort to consolidate the state of knowledge on policy formulation. An invaluable resource for scholars and students of policy studies, this Handbook provides a set of analytical discussions that help scholars, students and practitioners better understand the multiple dimensions of what policy formulation has come to mean in contemporary public policy-making and governance. 
In attempting to resolve pressing public problems, governments devise, deploy and develop policy tools in many different ways in different sectors and jurisdictions. Knowledge of these processes has been fragmented, however, spanning a multitude of different approaches, perspectives and case studies. By critically and systematically analysing both the processes and agents of policy formulation, this Handbook provides the first comprehensive overview of the formulation activities that are undertaken by governments in order to match their policy goals with the means of achieving them. 
The Handbook unites a wide range of expert contributors who examine the roles played by policy actors, institutions and ideas in answering fundamental questions about policy formulation such as who undertakes it, how, when, where and why. Through seven thematic sections this Handbook discusses a wide range of topics related to formulation such as the nature of policy design, instrument choice, policy appraisal, policy advice and the politics of defining and resolving policy problems. 

Think Tanks and SDGs: Catalysts for Analysis, Innovation and Implementation (University of Pennsylvania, 2015) 
Think tanks have the ability to play a key role in the ongoing discourse by providing analysis and advice on the effects of SDGs and the best means to execute them. Think tanks can provide a vital link and mediating role between civil society, governments, and intergovernmental organizations that will constitute the main contributors to SDG implementation. This book explores these issues further by documenting the role think tanks are playing in engaging the public and policymakers on the SDGs as well as specific strategies and programs they have developed to help implement them.

“Think Tanks in Security and International Affairs” chapter in edited volume, Security Expertise: Practices, Power and Responsibility (Routledge, 2015)
This volume brings together scholars from different fields to explore the power, consequences and everyday practices of security expertise.
Expertise mediates between different forms of knowledge: scientific and technological, legal, economic and political knowledge. This book offers the first systematic study of security expertise and opens up a productive dialogue between science and technology studies and security studies to investigate the character and consequences of this expertise. In security theory, the study of expertise is crucial to understanding whose knowledge informs security making and to reflect on the impact and responsibility of security analysis. In science and technology studies, the study of security politics adds a challenging new case to the agenda of research on expertise and policy. The contributors investigate cases such as academic security studies, security think tanks, the collaboration between science, anthropology and the military, transnational terrorism, and the ethical consequences of security expertise. Together they challenge our understanding of how expertise works and what consequences it has for security politics and international relations.
This book will be of particular interest to students of critical security studies, sociology, science and technology studies, and IR/security studies in general.

How Think Tanks Shape Social Development Policies (University of Pennsylvania, 2014)
Across the globe, there are more than four thousand policy institutes, or think tanks, that research or advocate for economic and social development. Yet the relationship between these organizations and the policies they influence is not well understood. How Think Tanks Shape Social Development Policies examines case studies drawn from a range of political and economic systems worldwide to provide a detailed understanding of how think tanks can have an impact on issues such as education policy, infrastructure, environment and sustainable development, economic reform, poverty alleviation, agricultural and land development, and social policy.
Each chapter provides an overview of the approaches and organizational structures of specific think tanks, as well as the political, economic, and social opportunities and the challenges of the environments in which they operate. The contributors study the stages of innovative think-tank-aided strategies implemented in highly industrialized world powers like the United States and Russia, emerging countries such as China, India, Brazil, and South Korea, and developing nations that include Ethiopia, Kenya, and Tanzania. Accompanied by an extensive introduction to contextualize the history and theory of policy institutes, this comprehensive comparison of policy success stories will be instructive and transferable to other think tanks around the globe.

“Think Tanks and Global Policy Networks” chapter in edited volume, International Organization and Global Governance (Routledge, 2013)
Featuring a diverse and impressive array of authors, this volume is the most comprehensive textbook available for all interested in international organization and global governance. Organized around a concern with how the world is and could be governed, the book offers:

  • In-depth and accessible coverage of the history and theories of international organization and global governance;
  • Discussions of the full range of state, intergovernmental, and nonstate actors; and
  • Examinations of key issues in all aspects of contemporary global governance.

The book’s 50 chapters are arranged into 7 parts and woven together by a comprehensive introduction to the field, separate section introductions designed to guide students and faculty, and helpful pointers to further reading. International Organization and Global Governance is a self-contained resource enabling readers to better comprehend the role of myriad actors in the governance of global life as well as to assemble the many pieces of the contemporary global governance puzzle.

Global Think Tanks, Policy Networks and Governance (Routledge, 2010)
Global Think Tanks provides a clear description of and context for the global proliferation of think tanks. Whilst these institutions are still relatively new players in global and national politics, they are becoming a significant source of strength in an increasingly transnational and less Western-led world. This work presents an important guide to the factors contributing to the proliferation of think tanks, the present nature of this proliferation, and the future of think tanks at the global, regional, and national level.
The book:

  • identifies the forces driving these phenomena by addressing some of the historical and current factors that have dominate policy debates around the world
  • attempts to identify the range of existing global think tanks and a representative group of global public policy networks and conduct detailed profiling of these organizations.
  • extrapolate trends in current think tank research that provide a basis for understanding the impact that think tanks have on policy makers
  • identifies and critique the role of global think tanks and global public policy networks in civil society and analyze the challenges and opportunities facing global think tanks and policy networks.
  • seeks to recommend improvements to think tanks and global public policy networks so that they can continue to contribute to global public policy and serve as a catalyst for civic engagement around the world.

Examining the issues that face think tanks on a global scale, this book will be of great interest to all students of international relations and international organizations.

Democratization and Market Reform in Developing and Transitional Countries Think Tanks as Catalysts (Routledge, 2010)
This book explores the pivotal role of think tanks in the democratization and economic reform movements by evaluating their overall effect on the transformation process in developing and transitional countries around the world.
James G. McGann assesses twenty-three think tanks, located in nine countries and four regions of the world: Chile, Peru, Poland, Slovakia, South Africa, Botswana, the Philippines, Thailand, and Vietnam, that have most impacted political and economic transitions in their respective countries. The author examines the role they played in the process of democratization and market reform during the late 80s and 90s and identifies the importance of think tanks in these processes by evaluating their overall effect on the policymaking process. He argues in the early stages of a transition from an authoritarian regime to an open and democratic society the activities of think tanks are especially critical, and they have provided a civil society safety net to support these fragile democracies.
This book will be of interest to students and scholars of political science, democratization, development, economic development and civil society.

Catalysts for Growth and Development: The Role of Think Tanks in Brazil, Russia, India, China, and South Africa (CIPE, 2009)

Think Tanks and Policy Advice in the US: Academics, Advisors and Advocates (Routledge, 2006)

The book, Think Tanks and Policy Advice in the US: Academics, Advisors and Advocates, examines the role of independent, nonprofit research organizations, or think tanks, in US policy debates, charting their early origins and the current impact of their research and analysis on the policy making process. The purpose of the book is to capture the distinctive nature of 30 leading think tanks in America while capturing the political and intellectual ecology of more than 1500 think tanks in the US. Many changes have taken place since I first wrote about think tanks 15 years ago in The Competition for Dollars, Scholars and Influence in the Public Policy Research Industry and some recent developments have distorted the original promise and purpose of public policy research organizations. The book is intended to chronicle and analyze these changes while exploring the impact think tanks have on politics, public policies and governance in the US.  Presidents from 15 leading think tanks in the US have contributed essays for the book that examine the role, value and impact of these organizations.  

Comparative Think Tanks, Politics and Public Policy (Edward Elgar, 2005)
Independent institutes conducting policy research, analysis and public dialogue, or “think tanks” as they are more commonly known, are one of the leading catalysts for ideas and action in civil societies around the world. Examining the role of think tanks in the policy formulation process, this groundbreaking study provides the first systematically comparative and methodologically rigorous map of such organizations and the social, political, legal and economic conditions that shape their work.
Once found only in advanced industrial democracies, think tanks now provide information and advice for policymakers in countries as diverse as India, Lebanon, Chile, Bulgaria, Germany, Senegal and Thailand. Using case studies of 20 countries across five regions of the world (Africa, the Middle East, the Americas, Europe and Asia), James McGann and Erik Johnson explore how the environments in which think tanks operate serve to expand or constrict their autonomy and influence. They also suggest ways donors, policymakers and international organizations can ensure the viability and sustainability of these important organizations.
With incisive analysis and cogent recommendations for how to seed and sustain independent think tanks around the world, this volume will be of great interest to those involved with think tanks themselves, as well as public policy and political science scholars, international development agencies and policymakers around the world. The comparative dimensions of the book will have considerable appeal among students of comparative politics, public policy and international affairs.

Think Tanks and Civil Societies: Catalysts for Ideas and Action by James G. McGann and R. Kent Weaver (Transaction, 2000)
Think tanks build the intellectual infrastructure for decision makers, offering research, analysis, forecasts, and recommendations on a wide range of issues--hunger, disarmament, urban planning, monetary policy, the environment. Just who does all this thinking in think tanks?
In Think Tanks and Civil Societies: Catalysts for Ideas and Action, scholars James G. McGann and R. Kent Weaver collect the insights of the world's leading think-tank researchers in a comprehensive look at the role of policy analysts and advocacy organizations in international decision-making.
“This volume is an informative collection of essays providing an overview of think-tanks from a global perspective…. The book should be of interest both to academics working on the third sector and the international flow of ideas and to policy-makers and think-tank practitioners because of its prescriptive nature.”—Stella Ladi, University of York, International Affairs
“The Book should become the pre-eminent comparative reference source on the characteristics and roles of think tanks in all regions of the world… The format is helpful for giving the reader a sense of both the “forest” and the “trees” with regard to think tanks and dispels any notion that think tanks remain a peculiarly Western phenomenon… In its entirety the book elaborates a valuable, sophisticated and complex framework for understanding how research and ideas are packaged and promoted to affect government and politics.”---Andrew Rich, Wake Forest University, Canadian Journal of Political Science

The Competition for Dollars, Scholars and Influence in the Public Policy Research Industry (University Press of America/ Rowman & Littlefield, 1995)
The American political culture has created a vibrant marketplace of ideas that is populated by lobbyists, the media and public policy research organizations. The nature and evolution of public policy research organizations in the United States is explored in The Competition for Dollars, Scholars and Influence in the Public Policy Research Industry by James G. McGann. The book compares and contrasts the mission, structure and operating principles of some of the leading think tanks in the US. Institutions such as the Brookings Institution, the Rand Corporation, the American Enterprise Institute, the Heritage Foundation, the Urban Institute, the Center for Strategic and International Studies, the Institute for Policy Studies, the Institute for International Economics and the Hoover Institution are profiled and analyzed to determine how their strategy and structure influences their role in the policy making process.
James McGann has written the first truly rigorous analysis of the fascinating but neglected world of policy formulation at U.S. "think tanks."—Thomas H. Henriksen, Senior Fellow, Hoover Institution.